Animal Husbandary & Dairying One Liner

Animal Husbandary & Dairying One Liner

1. In animal breeding, a group of interbreeding individuals, i.e., a breed or strain within a breed different in some aspects from other breeds or strains is called Population.
2. Continuous selective breeding leads to homozygosity in a population resulting a loss of variability.
3. Purebred Breeding refers to the Mating animals of the same breed for maintaining such breed. It aims to establish and maintain stable traits that animals will pass to the next generation.


4. Breed is a specific group of animals that is selectively bred for the preservation of specific characteristics. Breed is a smaller group of animals than species. Several breeds can be identified in a particular species
5. Species is the largest group that can produce a fertile offspring through breeding.


6. Natural mating refers to mating of animals by natural means.
7. Artificial insemination is the technique in which semen with living sperm is collected from the male and introduced into female reproductive organ.
8. Breeding or matting of the related animals is known as inbreeding. It is used to concentrate desirable traits and create genetic uniformity.
9. Close breeding is a type of inbreeding in which, animals are very closely related and can be traced back to more than one common ancestor. Examples: Sire to daughter, Son to dam, Brother to sister.
10. Line breeding is a type of inbreeding in which, Mating animals that are more distantly related which can be traced back to one common ancestor. Examples: Cousins Grandparents to grand offspring, Half-brother to half-sister.
11. Line breeding increases genetic purity amongst the animals of progeny generations.
12. Out breeding is breeding of unrelated animals. The effect of out breeding is opposite of inbreeding because heterozygosity is increased here.
13. Crossbreeding involves the mating of animals from two breeds.
14. Grading up is the breeding of animals of two different breeds where the animals of an indigenous breed/genetic group is mated by an improved pure breed for several generations in order to get superior traits of the improved breed.
15. Superior traits that result in the crossbred progeny from crossbreeding are called- Hybrid vigor or Heterosis.
16. The level of Exotic Inheritance should never exceed 62.5% in order to exploit the full genetic potential for a sustainable production.
17. The cross bred female obtained by crossing two breeds are mated to males from one of the two parental breeds, known as Back crossing.
18. Horns are peculiarly curved, giving a ‘half-moon’ appearance in Gir breed of cattle.
19. Best indigenous dairy breed of cattle- Sahiwal.
20. The cattle breed, best known for its draught capacity and especially for its trotting- Hallikar.
21. Pulikulam, cattle breed also known as Jallikattu madu mainly used for penning in the field.
22. The Manner of walking is peculiar called as sawai chal (1 ¼ paces) in cattle breed- Kankrej.
23. In India Jersey breed has acclimatized well and is widely used in cross breeding with indigenous cows.
24. The exotic breed of cattle known as best yielder; average milk production is 6000-7000 kgs/lactation- Holstein Friesian.
25. Karan Swiss is crossbred cattle obtained by crossing Brown Swiss breed with Sahiwal cattle at NDRI, Karnal.
26. Considered as most beautiful dairy breed- Ayrshire.
27. In Guernsey (exotic breed of cattle), the milk has a golden colour due to an exceptionally high content of beta carotene.


28. The Most important breed of buffaloes having Tightly curved horn, also used for the grading up of inferior local buffaloes- Murrah.
29. The characteristic drooping horns and funnel shaped teats are found in Jaffrabadi breed of Buffalo.
30. This buffalo breed is known for its high butter fat content varies from 6-12.5%- Bhadawari.
31. The peculiarity of this buffalo breed is the “wall eyes”- Nili Ravi.
32. Mehsana is cross bred of Surti and the Murrah.
33. Sword shaped horns are found in buffalo breed- Nagpuri.
34. Act of giving birth is called Parturition.
35. The desirable age at first calving in Indian cattle breed is 3 years, 2 years in cross breed cattle and 3.5 years in Buffaloes.
36. The breast fluid produced by humans, cows, and other mammals before breast milk is released, very nutritious and contains high levels of antibodies called- Colostrum.
37. The process of becoming pregnant, involving fertilization and implantation of the embryo in the uterus is called conception.
38. It refers to that place which is used for feeding of lamb, calves and piglet but not for adult animals- Creep.
39. It is the period started from the stop of milk production to next calving- Dry Period.
40. In mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or fetus is developing in the uterus is called as- Gestation.
41. The length of milk producing period after calving is known as lactation period.

Read..Gestation and Lactation Period

42. The process in which mature male covers the female is called service.
43. Service period is the period between date of calving and date of successful conception.
44. It is an infectious disease that has jumped from a non-human animal to humans- Zoonosis.
45. Chevon, cabrito, capretto- Meat of goat.
46. Beef- Meat of cattle/buffalo.
47. Pork- Meat of pig/swine.
48. Mutton, hogget, lamb- Meat of sheep.
49. Cannibalism in poultry is a condition in which birds of a flock attack their pen mate and eat its flesh, which may impose deep wounds and heavy mortality.
50. The most recent and cheapest way to avoid cannibalism is debeaking which can be done right from the day old chicks to any age.
51. Culling refers to the identification and removal of the non-laying or low producing hens from a laying flock.
52. Incubation is the process by which egg-laying animals hatch their eggs; it also refers to the development of the embryo within the egg under favorable environmental condition.
53. Especially in poultry, the act of sitting on eggs to incubate them is called Brooding.
54. Hatching of eggs refers to the production of baby chicks. In early days eggs were hatched by placing them under broody hens.
55. Toned milk– Milk that has been standardized to contain a minimum of 3.0% fat and 8.5% solids not fat.
56. Double toned milk– Milk that has been standardized to contain a minimum of 1.5% fat and 9.0% solids not fat.
57. Milk from which almost all the milk fat has been removed by the process of separation is called skimmed milk. It has negligible fat content (0.5%) and is good for people who want to avoid consuming fat.
58. Standardized milk– Milk that has been standardized to contain a minimum of 1.5% fat and 9.0% solids not fat.

Read more..Milk- Milk Nutrients and Composition

59. SNF (Solids Not Fat)– It refers to the solids, excluding milk fat, in milk. That is, it refers to protein, carbohydrate and salt/ash in milk.
60. Pasteurization- is a process involving heating of milk (temperature/time = 630C/30 minutes or 720C/15 seconds or equivalent) followed with rapid cooling to 100C or less. Heating destroyed all disease-causing microorganisms making milk safe for consumption.
61. Homogenization– Homogenization is the process of breaking down the fat globules in milk from their original size of 0.1 to 15 µm to a more uniform and smaller size of 2 µm or less.
62. Bactofugation– Process designed for removal of bacteria from milk by means of centrifugation. It is simply physical separation and does not involve any chemical treatment of milk.
63. Sterilization– means heating milk in a sealed container continuously to a temperature of either 115 oC for 15 minutes or equivalent. It frees the milk of all microorganisms and, hence, sterilized milk can be stored at room temperature (no refrigeration) for prolonged periods.
64. Fortification– Fortified milk is cow’s milk that contains extra vitamins and minerals that are not naturally found in milk in significant amounts. Typically, vitamins D and A are added to milk sold.
65. Sheep breed of which wool is fine and lustrous, clipped thrice a year, Undercoat is used for the manufacture of high quality Kulu shawls and blankets- Gaddi.
66. The most popular fine wool breed of the world- Merino.
67. Merino sheep breed is origin of – Spain.
68. Dorset sheep breed is native of- U.K.
69. It is largest and most elegant of the long-legged goats of India having Parrot mouth appearance- Jamunapari.
70. Goat breed whose skin is in great demand for high quality shoe-making- Black Bengal.
71. Cross bred of Bikaneri ewes and Marino ram- Hissardale.
72. Famous Exotic breed of goat- Angora.


73. In the Extensive systems animals roams freely or under the supervision of a herdsman.
74. In intensive system dairy cows may be kept in no-grazing conditions with all their forage brought to them, pigs may be housed in climate-controlled buildings and never go outdoors, poultry may be reared in barns and kept in cages as laying birds under lighting-controlled conditions.
75. The first scientific research in Artificial Insemination of domestic animals was conducted on dogs.
76. An extender is a solution that allows the semen from a donor to impregnate more females by making insemination possible with fewer sperm.
77. In mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or fetus is developing in the uterus is called- Gestation.
78. The shortest known gestation is that of the Virginian opossum, about 12 days, and the longest that of the Indian elephant, about 22 months.
79. The length of milk producing period after calving is known as lactation period.
80. Average gestation period of cattle- 283 days.
81. Average lactation period is cattle- 305 days.
82. Lactation period in Buffalo- 200-300 days.
83. Domestic pig has average gestation period of 113 days, whereas domestic goat has 150 days.
84. Sheep has average gestation period of 150 days and the lactation period is 100 days.
85. The largest compartment in ruminant animal- Rumen.
86. The sate when animal first becomes sexually mature is called- Puberty.
87. In animals, Grass tetany is caused due to deficiency of Magnesium.
88. The fleshy evident mass found between the forelimbs of cows is known as- Brisket.
89. Cattle disease transferred to man- Anthrax.
90. Fowl pox disease is related to Poultry.
91. A small structure in mammary glands in which milk is manufactured- Alveolus.
92. Swelling due to the collection of gases in Rumen of the animal is called- Bloat.
93. Lactose found in milk is a disaccharide composed of- Galactose and glucose.
94. Let down of milk in cow is due to secretion of hormone called- Oxytocin.
95. The process of removal of undesirable or non-productive animals from herd is called- Culling.
96. The term used for meat of rabbit is- Venison.
97. The most commonly used cry protectant for freezing of semen is- Glycerol.
98. Castrated male of sheep is called- Wedder.
99. The score points of cow graded very good ranges from 85 to 90.
100. Sugar content of cow and buffalo milk ranges from 4-5%.

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