Job opportunities in Horticulture

Job opportunities in Horticulture


Horticulture is growing field of agriculture that deals with the cultivation and processing of fruits, vegetables, flowers, aromatic and medicinal plants. Now days, people attraction towards horticulture sector increases because government is focusing on horticultural sector due to its significant contribution in the economy as employment generators and industrial raw material provider.

Liberalization, privatization and globalization of world trade also generated the opportunities of employment for youths across the country. Horticulture sectors give employment to people as horticultural professionals in both government and private sector. Thus, a horticultural graduate can get employment on various posts such as horticulturist, floriculturist, olericulturist, pomologist, technician, horticultural consultant, horticultural therapist, botanical garden worker, green house manager, landscape architect, viticulturist, nursery manager and horticultural marketers in governmental and private institutions. Youth can become entrepreneur and take benefits of different government scheme.

The changing scenario encourages private investment. Resultantly, horticulture has moved from rural confinement to commercial venture attracting youth since it has proved to be intellectually satisfying and economically rewarding. Diversification in horticulture is a best option as there are several advantages of growing horticultural crops.

These crops are highly remunerative for replacing subsistence farming and thus alleviate poverty level in rainfed, dry land, hilly, arid agro eco-systems. It has potential for development of wastelands through planned strategies, give nutritional security, eco-friendly and provide higher employment opportunity. At present fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamentals are grown not only within the home garden, but also in large quantities on a commercial scale. In other words, many horticulture crops throughout the world are grown primarily as business enterprises.

Thus, horticulture has at least two aspects: the amateur and the professional.

Horticultural crops are high-value crops with high potential of value-addition, high potential for foreign exchange earnings and make higher contribution to GDP. Horticulture is an extremely diversified field with unlimited employment opportunities in a variety of areas and it also includes conservation of plants, restoration, landscape, design and construction.

Horticulture sector provides the job to the eligible rural and urban youths in various firms and institutions at different positions from supervisory level to top management level. Horticulture sector has various opportunities for salaried jobs such as landscapers and horticulturists are hired by hotels, health farms, and holiday resorts to beautify their surroundings while florists and nurseries managers are doing lucrative business especially in the metropolitan cities (Bairwa et al., 2014). Horticulturists work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers & technical advisors in sectors of horticulture.

Career options and opportunities

Horticulture has become one of the best career options due to ample employment potential from academic to research and development in private as well as government sector in India as well as abroad.

Horticulture is a very diverse area with career opportunities for almost any person interested in the field. Job exists for almost everyone, from those with no formal education in horticulture to those with Ph. D. and other degrees in horticulture. Horticulture institutes and colleges, vegetable farms, fruit orchards always look for skilled horticulturists.

Horticulturists work in a wide range of areas in agribusiness, arboriculture, botanical gardens, conservation (ex-situ and in situ), crop management, floral design, food chemistry, fruit and vegetable production, garden centres, greenhouses, grounds management, landscape construction and management, nurseries, management and sales, marketing /public relations, research and development, teaching /instruction, technical writing and publishing.

A graduate in horticulture has many job opportunities and can find jobs in many government departments, educational institutions after completing B.Sc. horticulture degree. The candidates can attend the state public service commission exam to get the post of district horticulture officers (DHO). A candidate can also try for technical officer position in different organizations such as national horticulture research and development foundation and national horticultural board (NHB).

The job opportunities also lie in areas such as crop production advisers, tissue cultural specialist, plant breeders, vegetable breeder, agricultural officers, crop inspectors and horticultural consultant. Apart from this, one can also apply for jobs by attending the civil services, staff selection commission, railway’s horticultural specialist and banking service.

Post graduate candidates can get jobs in to research, lecturer in different universities, and landscaping designer in different private companies. This field provides rewards such as freedom to work independently or as a team, opportunity to be in a pleasant outdoor world and satisfaction. Modern horticulture is viewed as a mega hortibusiness enterprise rather than mere cultivation crops. Many multinational companies are widening their activities by encouraging glass house/greenhouse cultivation, vertical gardening, hydroponics and exports of horticultural commodities.

Sector wise Employment opportunities in Horticultural sector

Government Sector Employment

  • Banking professionals: For graduates, the nationalized banks, reserve bank, state bank put forward an opportunity in agriculture and horticulture as agricultural officers, probationary officers, field officers.
  • Different agricultural universities also employ horticultural postgraduates for distinct posts (Research Assistant) from concerned field of their specialization. However, for a number of posts for the post of associate professor, assistant professor and other teaching posts but candidates should qualify national eligibility test (NET) conducted by UGC/CSIR/ICAR while for senior level posts doctoral degree (Ph.D.) in concerned field is an essential requisite.
  • Scientist: This examination is conducted by the agriculture scientist recruitment board (ASRB), ICAR, and New Delhi.
  • Horticulture officer and Assistant horticulture officer: these examinations are conducted by public service commission of concerned state. States offer district horticulture officer (DHO) and rural development officers.
  • Technical assistant, horticulture inspector / food inspector /marketing inspector: the eligibility of this examination is B.Sc. (Agriculture) or B.Sc. (Horticulture) and examination is conducted by concerned state government.

Industrial Value

Flowers Industry

In floriculture, cut flowers alone account of 86% of the total trade in this sector. Dried flowers and other plant parts are other prominent commodities. These flowers are traded round the year all over the country and a bulk of them are used in making garland, bouquets, bracelets, vennis and adornment. Flowers are also used as decorations in marriages and parties and for offerings to gods in temples, poojas etc, some essential flowers are also used in extraction of essence by the perfumery industry. Extract from fragrant flowers such as Rose and Lavender Champark are generally used in the perfume industry. The ultimate refined product which is called concrete from jasmine oil may cost about Rs. 10,000 or more per kg in the international market, while tuberose oil from polyanthas tuberose blossoms is used in high- grade perfumery and is valued more than that of Jasmine.

Processed products: Of the total horticultural trade, processed fruits and vegetables account for 20% and 17% respectively. Among the processed fruits, fruits juice and dried fruits contribute to 41% and 12% of trade respectively.

Mango pulp, pickles and chutneys of various fruits remain in high demand in export trade. Among processed vegetables, mushrooms, gherkins, dehydrated onion and frozen pre-cut vegetables are important items.

Spices: The spices export during 2019-20 attained an all-time record in terms of both volume and value.

Medicinal and Aromatic plants: India has its credits of exporting herbal material raw drugs to world market. The export of herbs and value-added extracts of medicinal herbs are gradually increasing over the years.

Medicinal and aromatic plants are regarded as industrial crops as their products are used either in pharmaceutical or in flavour and fragrance industries. With increasing demand for medicinal and aromatic plants and their products, number of agribusiness opportunities exist that can generate employment in rural and urban areas.

Agribusiness opportunities in Medicinal and Aromatic plants

Particulars Business opportunities
Cultivation Rural employment and livelihood improvements
Processing  (Value addition) establishment of distillation units, herbal extraction units, fractionating columns etc. 
Bye-products utilization Manufacturing of vermicompost, perfumed waters, Botanical pesticides etc.
Product development Manufacturing of soaps, candles, attars, perfumes, agarbatties, traditional drugs etc.


Marketing Marketing of seeds, plants, oils, drugs, products etc.
Consultancy Cultivation, processing, financing, marketing etc
Quality Control Testing laboratories for quality certification
Packaging and storing Drums, bags, cartons, godowns etc.
Transport Tractors, trucks etc


Private Sector Employment

  • Horticultural graduates can become a horticulturist in industries, hotels, golf courses & construction companies. Marketing jobs are also offered by various seed, agro-chemicals, pesticide, herbicides and insecticide companies. Creatively, it has very satisfying and diversity – one can be a hands-on gardener, a hard-core plant scientist or a garden designer.
  • The horticulture industry has spawned a number of supporting or service industries such as-

(1) Research: many scientists are engaged in developing new and improved types of vegetables, fruits and ornamentals. Apart from these, horticultural scientists also devote considerable time to improve the aesthetics of ornamentals and the quality of products and trying to develop new technologies like remote sensing to combat with adverse conditions.

 (2) Chemical industry: The horticulture industry depends on large amounts and varieties of chemicals, including fertilizers, pesticides and growth hormones. Many companies are involved in producing chemicals that are used to enhance plant production and the quality of produce.

(3) Production of essential oils: many firms are involved in extraction of medicinal and aromatic plants essential oils which is used in confectionary, cosmetic, medicine, beverage and food industries at large scale.

(4) Machinery: The engineers design and produce tool and machinery for use in the production of horticultural plants. Machinery and implements are available for preparing, harvesting, storing and packaging. These aids enable large scale production of horticultural plants to be undertaken.

(5) Distribution: Horticultural products are transported from the areas of production to marketing outlets. Horticulture produce and product require special handling on transportation due to their perishability to retain their quality for a long time.

(6) Computer in horticulture: Computers are widely used in the horticultural field such as landscape designing, crop modelling and soil modelling equipment automation, public information, record keeping and databases. Expert systems, communication, sensor technology and internet services etc. computer technology have significant applications in horticulture.

Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship Development

After attending professional trainings, graduation and post-graduation, a horticultural graduates can start their own agriculture clinic which are envisaged to provide expert advice and services to farmers on technology, cropping practices, protection from pests and diseases, market trends, processing of fruits and vegetables and increased income to farmers.

A graduate also can start the business of nursery raising of fruit plants, ornamental plants, aromatic and medicinal plants, vertical garden and bonsai by the plant material using various techniques such as sexual propagation (seed) and asexual propagation like grafting, budding, layering and tissue culture.

Horticulture provides immense potential of entrepreneurship development in nursery management, landscaping, processing, marketing and protected cultivation of higher value horticultural crops.

A horticultural graduate can start their own retailing business of fruits, vegetables and flowers using mobile based agri retailing (MBAR) model and digital marketing.

Different Job Positions in Horticultural Sector

Floriculturist: The persons associated with the floriculture field are called floriculturists. Floriculturists are specialized in planning and designs of exterior/interior landscapes for parks, recreational areas, campuses of universities / colleges, industrial sites, institutional grounds, shopping malls, Apartments and other large projects. These persons should have a sound knowledge of growing cut flowers, bedding plants and potted plants right from production to post-harvest management. They are well acquainted with design of flower and foliage plant arrangement along with well versed in care and sell live or dried floral material. Therefore, these personnel are high in demand in government agencies, landscape architectural firms and resorts.

Olericulturist: The persons who perform the activities of vegetable growing are known as olericulturist. Olericulturist can start their career in industry, research institutes, universities, seeds companies and other organizations at various levels.

These personnel are more required presently in private sector as the vegetable growers have good future especially in seed industry. Several universities are opening separate department of olericulure which increased the demand of olericulturist for academic and research. Olericulturist play an important role in production of off-season vegetable cultivation mainly protected cultivation.

Pomologist: A pomologist focuses on the cultivation, production, post-harvest, and storage, processing and value addition of fruits crops. Pomologist are well acquainted with breeding technology, tissue culture techniques, integrated nutrient management (INM), integrated pest management technique (IPM) and protected cultivation techniques of fruits. They are well versed in transfer of qualitative and quantitative traits specifically desired traits, such as flavour, and disease resistance. Hence, pomologists have great future in the horticultural industry, state agricultural universities, ICAR institutions and NGOs for academic, research and technical contribution.

Botanical / Horticultural Garden Worker: These involves planting and maintaining plant collections in naturalized, systematic, or aesthetic arrangements and also propagate plants, teach, and conduct research study. These people can be employed in arboreta, botanical gardens, city parks, colleges/universities, historical sites, nature preserves, public and private gardens, and recreational areas.

Horticultural Consultant: These people provide expert advice to businesses and growers for horticultural business. They are specialized in one area such as nursery crops, post-harvest management, hi tech cultivation of fruits and vegetables. Many people are self-employed by establishing their own consultancy firm and others people are work for equipment companies, landscape firms and pesticide companies.

This blend of horticultural knowledge and business understanding allows you to create presentations for your local park or zoo, design colourful displays for estates or decorate the gardens of stately parks.

Horticultural Therapist: These people use plants and horticultural activities to improve emotional, mental, and physical well-being of patients. These are works as part of a team consisting of other health-care professionals, rehabilitation specialists, and social workers for mentally disabled, emotionally disabled, senior groups, inner city youth, and prisoners. These people can be employed by hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, schools, and rehabilitation centres.

Ornamental Horticulturist: An ornamental horticulturist works with plants used in decoration or recreation, this is most commonly done at a nursery, floral shop or landscaping company. Customers will usually come to you for advice with a specific need, whether it be questions about their trees and plants or if they are looking for a low maintenance flower bed.

Greenhouse Manager: These people are cultivated, manage and harvests greenhouse produce like vegetables, fruits and cut flowers. Employed or hired by commercial greenhouses or landscape companies and government agencies across the globe.

Landscape Architect: They plans and designs exterior landscapes for parks, recreational areas, campuses, industrial sites, institutional grounds, shopping malls, and other large projects. These people may be self-employed or work for developmental companies, government agencies, landscape architectural firms, or resorts.

Nursery Manager: Young plants require a lot of care and a job as a nursery worker is to do just that, here you will tend to flowers, trees and shrubs. This will help them to develop into strong and thriving plants with your help to plant, feed and water them. Certain plants may need harvesting to sell in flower shops or for the use of research purposes.

These deals with Plants, transplants, maintain, and harvests nursery crops and may be involved in propagating plants. Job opportunities are in greenhouses, landscaping companies, and retail nurseries.

Horticultural Marketer: These people are involving in all aspects of marketing and promoting horticultural products, including improving methods and equipment used in grading, packaging, storage, and shipping.

Viticulturist: These are engaged in grape production for wine, juice, raisins, and other grape products. Employment can be getting in grape products manufacturing companies, colleges/universities, vineyards, and wineries.

Mushroom Cultivation: Recently, many unemployed people have begun to adopt mushroom cultivation as a means of self-employment. It is high time that Indian mushroom cultivators and consumers became aware of the nutritional and medicinal values of cultivated and wild species of mushrooms. Mushrooms are good source of high-quality proteins and are rich in vitamins and minerals. They contain 20-30% protein (dry weight basis), lysine and tryptophan.

Raw materials provider for Industries:  value addition is an important activity in horticulture. For providing raw material to small scale industries like silkworm, lakh, honey, match, paper, canning, frozen and dehydration etc. horticulture has wide scope.


Horticulture education is emerging field of agriculture that providing immense employment opportunities to rural and urban youths across the country. A horticultural graduate can get job on different posts in academics, research, technician, consultancy, banking in governmental institutes, private firms, cooperative and NGOs.

It may conclude that a candidate after completion of graduation, or post-graduation is eligible for many governmental and private jobs in academics and research areas of horticultural sector. Thus, a horticultural graduate can get employment on various posts such as horticulturist, floriculturist, olericulturist, pomologist, technician, horticultural consultant, horticultural therapist, botanical garden worker, green house manager, landscape architect, viticulturist, nursery manager and horticultural marketers in governmental and private institutions.

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