AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE & AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONE
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1983) defined as Agro-climatic zone is a land unit in terms of major climates suitable for a certain range of crops and cultivars. Factors of agro-climatic zone are:
- Growing period
Agro-climatic regional planning in India was initiated in 1988 by the Planning Commission. Regional planning was came into force on the basis of agro-climatic factors (Rainfall, temperature, soil, topography, cropping & farming system and water resources) for balanced regional growth.
The Planning Commission after examining the earlier studies on the regionalization of the agricultural economy has recommended that agricultural planning must be done on the basis of agro climatic regions. For resource development, the country has been broadly divided into fifteen agricultural regions based on agro climatic features, particularly soil type, climate including temperature and rainfall and its variation and water resources availability. Agro-15- Climatic Zones are:
- Western Himalayan division
- Eastern Himalayan division
- Lower Gangetic plain region
- Middle Gangetic plain region
- Upper Gangetic plain region
- Trans-Gangetic plain region
- Eastern plateau and hill region
- Central plateau and hill region
- Western plateau and hill region
- Southern plateau and hill region
- East coast plain and hill region
- West coast plain and hill region
- Gujarat plain and hill region
- Western plain and hill region
- Island Region
Agro-climatic zones under National Agricultural Research Project (NARP)
National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) was launched by ICAR for initiating agricultural research in the agro-climatic zones of the country. In NARP, the country was divided into 127 agro-climatic zones.
It is the land unit carved out of agro-climatic region by superimposing climate on landforms and soil types which act as modifiers to climate and length of growing period. Factors are:
- Growing period
- Landforms and
- Soil types
Agro-ecological regions by the National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP)
The National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP) came up with twenty agro-ecological zones based on the growing period as integrated criteria of effective rainfall, soil groups, delineated boundaries adjusted to district boundaries with a minimal number of regions. Subsequently, these twenty agro-ecological zones were sub- divided into 60 sub-zones.
- Western Himalayas
- Western Plain, Kachchh, and part of Kathiwara Peninsula
- Deccan Plateau
- Northern Plain and Central Highlands including Aravallis
- Central Malwa Highlands, Gujarat Plains, and Kathiawar Peninsula
- Deccan Plateau, hot semi-arid ecoregion
- Deccan (Telengana) Plateau and Eastern Ghats
- Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu Plateau and Deccan (Karnataka)
- Northern Plain, hot sub-humid (dry) ecoregion
- Central Highlands (Malwas, Budelkhand, and Eastern Satpura)
- Eastern Plateau (Chattisgarh), hot sub-humid ecoregion
- Eastern (Chotanagpur) Plateau and Eastern Ghats
- Eastern Plain
- Western Himalayas
- Bengal and Assam plains
- Eastern Himalayas
- North Eastern Hills (Purvanchal)
- Eastern Coastal Plain
- Western Ghats and Coastal Plain
- Island of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep
Frequently Asked Question (FAQ)
What is Agro-climatic zone?
Agro-climatic zone is a land unit in terms of major climates suitable for a certain range of crops and cultivars.
What is Agro-ecological Region?
It is the land unit carved out of agro-climatic region by superimposing climate on landforms and soil types which act as modifiers to climate and length of growing period.
How many Agro-climatic zones and Agro-ecological regions are in India?
The planning commission has divided into 15-Agroclimatic zone, National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) of ICAR divided into 127 zones.
The National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP) divided into 20-Agroecological regions.