Botany One Liner Part 1

Botany One Liner Part 1
1. The term protein was first described by the Dutch chemist G. J. Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jacob Berzelius in 1838.
2. Theory of evolution was given by- Charles Darvin.
3. Precursor of Indole-3 Acetic acid (IAA) is Tryptophane.
4. Father of plant physiology is Stephen Hales.
5. Lock -and-key model is a model for enzyme substrate interaction suggesting that the enzyme and the substrate possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another. The model was proposed by- Emil Fischer in 1890.
6. Cobalt is a constituent of- Vitamin B12.
7. Final product of Glycolysis is- Pyruvate.
8. Light dependent or light reaction or Hill reaction occurs in- Grana of chloroplast.
9. Light independent reaction or Dark reaction or CO2 reduction takes place in- Stroma of Chloroplast.
10. In C3 plants, the initial product of carbon fixation is 3-carbon compound, 3-phosphoglyceric acid and the enzyme involved in carboxylation is- Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase.
11. Over 90% of plants use C3 carbon fixation, compared to 3% that use C4 carbon fixation.
12. Rice, Wheat, Barley and Soyabean are examples of C3 plants, while maize, sorghum, sugarcane, pearl millet and other minor millets are examples of C4 plants.

Read more… Difference between C3, C4 & CAM Plants

13. Xerophytes such as cacti and most succulents also use PEP carboxylase to capture CO2 in a process called Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants fix CO2 at night mostly in the form of- Malic acid.
14. In C4 plants, initial product of carbon fixation is 4-carbon compound which may be- Malic acid or Aspertic acid.
15. Photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency are higher in- C4 plants.
16. Kranz type leaf anatomy found in- C4 plants.
17. The sugar found in germinating seeds is- Maltose.
18. The milk sugar called lactose is combination of Glucose and Galactose.
19. The range of VIBGYOR is 390-760nm whereas, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is 400-700nm.
20. The term vitamin was coined by- Casimir Funk in 1912.
21. The mineral nutrient involved in stomatal movement is- Potassium.


22. Mass flow or pressure flow theory for the movement of food was given by- Ernst Munch in 1930.
23. Xylem transport water and mineral salts from the roots to other parts of the plant whereas, Phloem transports sucrose and amino acids from the leaves to other parts of the plant.


24. Breaking of seed dormancy by low temperature treatment of moist seeds is called- Stratification.
25. Vernalisation is cold treatment to a plant bud or seedling in order to provide specific low temperature to cool loving plants. The term vernalisation was coined by- T. D. Lysenko.
26. Shrinkage of protoplasm due to outward flow of water in a hypertonic solution is called- Plasmolysis.


27. The movement of substances from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration until molecules are evenly distributed is called- Diffusion. Diffusion don’t require a semi-permeable membrane.
28. The movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower concentration of solution toward a higher concentration of solution is called Osmosis. Osmosis always requires a semi-permeable membrane.
29. Diffusion can occur in any medium whether it is liquid, solid or gas; whereas, osmosis occurs only in – a liquid medium.


30. The progressive physiological changes of living beings that lead to decline of biological functions and organism’s ability to adapt to metabolic stress is called- Aging.
31. Aging and senescence both are intrinsic biological process which leads to the deterioration of physiological functions necessary for the survival of an organism and eventually to cell death.


32. The study of aging process is known as- Gerontology. Gerontology includes three aspects named longevity, aging, and death.
33. Those plants having vascular tissues called xylem and phloem for conducting water and minerals, and conducting food respectively are called- Vascular plants.
34. In many dicotyledonous plants such as groundnut, beans etc., the cotyledons emerge from the soil and function as first leave. The cotyledons are brought out of the soil by curved elongation of hypocotyl. This type of germination where cotyledons emerge out of the soil is called- Epigeal germination.
35. In monocotyledonous plants, the cotyledon remains in the soil. The plumule grow or is pushed upward by the elongation of epicotyl. This type of germination where cotyledon is below or inside the soil is called Hypogeal germination.
36. Botanically, a plant shoot consists of any plant stem together with its appendages, leaves, lateral buds, flowering stems, and flower buds. Shoot is upward growth resulting from seed germination where leaves will develop.
37. Stems, which are an integral component of shoots, provide an axis for buds, fruits, and leaves. It supports leaves, flowers and fruits, transports water and dissolved substances between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem, stores nutrients.
38. The organic chemical compounds, other than nutrients and vitamins, which modify or regulate physiological processes in an appreciable measure in the plant when used in small concentration are called- Plant Growth Regulators.
39. Plant growth refers to the quantitative increase in plant body such as increase in the length of stem and root, the number of leaves etc. whereas, Development refers to the qualitative changes such as germination of seed, formation of leaves, flowers and fruits, falling of leaves and fruits.
40. The plant hormones are identified as Promoter (Auxin, Gibberellins and Cytokinin), Inhibitors (Abscisic acid and Ethylene) and other Hypothetical growth substance (florigen, flowering hormone etc.)


41. Auxins were discovered by- Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin. Auxin produced in the apex bud inhibits lateral buds from growing.
42. Auxins are the first identified hormones of which IAA seems to be the major naturally occurring endogenous auxin in plants and crops.
43. Gibberellin was first recognized in 1926 by a Japanese scientist, Eiichi Kurosawa, studying bakanae, the “foolish seedling” disease in rice.
44. Gibberellin was isolated from the soil borne fungus- Gibberella fujikuroi.
45. Cytokinins were discovered by- Skoog, C. Miller and co-workers during the 1950s as factors that promote cell division (Cytokinesis).
46. The first cytokinin discovered was an adenine (aminopurine) derivative named kinetin (6-furfuryl- aminopurine), which was isolated as a DNA degradation product.
47. Ethylene was discovered by- Glaston & davis in 1970. Ethylene is a gas that forms through the breakdown of methionine, which is in all cells.
48. Abscisic acid (ABA), also known as abscisin II and dormin, is best known as a plant hormone. Abscisic acid owes its names to its role in the abscission of plant leaves. It is also called- Stress hormone.
49. The term “Phytohormone” for plant hormones was used by- Thimann.
50. Plant hormones are identified as promoter- Auxin, Gibberellins and Cytokinin.
51. Plant hormones identified as inhibitors- Abscisic acid and Ethylene.
52. The major naturally occurring endogenous auxin is- IAA.
53. First endogenous cytokinin was isolated from maize kernels known as- Zeatin.

See also…
Agriculture One Linear (Part-1)


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