Nature of land, climatic characteristics and available irrigational facilities are the key source which affect the farming, farmers can adopt. According to Johnson, “when farms in a group are quite similar in the kinds and proportions of the crops and livestock that are produced and in the methods and practices followed in production; that group is described as type of farming”.
Depending on methods and practices used in the production, kinds and proportion of crops & livestock; farming grouped into five types as described below:-

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 Diversified Farming

  • A diversified is one that has several production enterprises or sources of income. In other words a farm on which the income from a single product is <50% of the total farm income is called diversified farm and such farming is known as diversified farming. Eg. Crop production+ Dairy+ Poultry+ Fishery+ Fruit production+ Sheep rearing
  • This farming provides better use of land, labour and capital and reduces business risk due to a single crop failure. Apart from this regular returns are obtained from various enterprises.

Subsistence/ Marginal farming

  • Subsistence farming is the practice of growing crops and rearing animals for personal and family use.
  • It is done on a small-scale with the focus of feeding the farmer’s family.
  • In such farming farmer has surplus to sell in the market except on occasions when he has to force sale to get some cash.

Specialized Farming

  • The farm from which 50% or more income is derived from a single enterprise viz. crops, livestock, dairy, poultry, etc., such farm is called specialized farm, and farming is called specialized farming.
  • Special market outlets, fairly economic conditions are necessary for this farming.
  • Often name is attributed to main crop or enterprise whose farm income exceeds 50% of the total farm income. For example, if farming of tea contributes more than or equal to 50% of the total farm income, is called tea garden.
  • This farming has various advantages like better use of land, farm management, marketing, processing, transportation, financing of the produce etc. such farming provides labour and skill efficiency.

Dry farming

  • Such farming is practiced in areas (Arid & semi-arid regions) where annual rainfall is <750 mm and crops failure due to prolonged dry spells during crop period is most common.
  • Moisture conservation practices, organic manuring, mixed cropping and alternate land use system are very important in such farming.

Ranching Farming

  • Ranch land is not utilized for crop production, but natural vegetation is used for grazing the livestock.
  • Farmers are known as rancher having no land and use public land. This farming is confined to J&K and Bikaner hilly areas in India.

Mixed farming

  • It includes crop production, livestock, fishery, poultry, beekeeping etc. to sustain and satisfy as many needs of the farmer as possible.
  • It is subsistence type and income from subsidiary enterprise does not exceed 10% and subsidiary enterprise utilizes byproduct.

mixed farming

Factors affect the farming

There are many factors which affect the types of farming-

  • Interaction and product relationship
  • One crop season and length of sowing season
  • Resources available to farmer
  • Farm size
  • Risk & uncertainty
  • Types of land and value
  • Transport facility
  • Business skill and relative price of farm product
  • Long investment and size economy

Systems of Farming

The combination of products on a given farm and the methods and practices used in the production of the product is known as the system of farming. In India system of farming is concerned in terms of ways of economic and social functioning. Based on these farming has following systems-

Peasant farming

  • In this system of farming, farmer himself is manager and he practices agriculture in his own way. All the family members help in making decision.
  • Thus objective is to fulfill the family needs and not maximization of profit.
  • Most farmers are practiced this system in India. Also called individual farming.

Capitalistic farming

  • Main objective is to maximize the profit.
  • Capitalists use the improved method and farming technologies on their big farm.
  • In Capitalistic farming system, farming activities are controlled and manipulated by individual entrepreneurs.
  • Capitalistic farming system is predominant in South America, North America and Europe.
  • In India it is confined to tea, coffee and rubber gardens. Plantation is the commonest example of capitalistic farming.

State farming

  • Such farming system is often practiced to carry out farm research work, demonstration and production of quality seeds, e.g. research farm. Farms are managed by the governments.

Corporate farming– Such farming is prevalent in USA. Corporate sector polls the large land and capital to operate the farming. Maharashtra & Tamilnadu have some such farming.

Joint farming– Two or more farmers carry out the agricultural operations jointly by pooling their resources and lastly divide the profit or produce according to fixed ratio they had promised.

Collective farming

  • In this farming, multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise. That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
  • This system is practiced in Russia & china.

Cooperative farming– All the members/farmers pool their land, labour and capital on the voluntary basis and perform the farming operation to get mutual benefit.

Factors affect the system of farming

  • Farm tenancy
  • Farm lease, ownership, group farming desire
  • Economic use of land
  • Incentive to cooperative

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